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Inclusion Stains

Inclusion stains are our principal products. The colors cover red, orange red, orange, yellow, golden yellow, green and violet.

1. Basic components and structure

The chromophore in inclusion stains is Cd-Se-S (Cd-S). It is encapsulated with  Zirconium Silicate crystal which is transparent and chemically stable in high temperature. So the basic components are Cd-Se-S-Zr-Si(Cd-S-Zr-Si).

2. Applications of Inclusion stains:

Inclusion stains are mainly used in ceramics (ceramics for daily use, building ceramics, etc.). Application methods mainly include in-glazing (also called colored glaze, i.e. finished ceramic products are obtained by applying the mixture of stains and glazes on the body and then firing), under-glazing (finished ceramic products are obtained by applying the mixture of stains and flux on the body , drying, covering with transparent glaze, and then firing), and on-glazing (covering the body with base glazes which are not limited to white color, applying stained glaze on base glaze, then firing). Inclusion stains are usually used in high temperature on-glazing process or with products having very strict standard of Cd release. Otherwise, ordinary cadmium pigments can be used instead. Inclusion stains are also used for coloring bodies of high grade ceramic articles. 

3.Temperature range:

Below 1250 ℃, our inclusion stains are very stable. Most of our customers use inclusion stains at temperatures from 1030℃ to 1230℃. Other customers use them well at 1280-1300℃ with reducing atmosphere. Inclusion stains have good adaptability for frits (transparent, opaque, and matte). Generally speaking, they behave best in transparent frits at lower temperature, while in opaque or matte frits, the coloring strength is comparatively weaker. We usually test our stains at 1030℃ with transparent frits ,zirconium frits and at 1230℃ with matte frits. Sometimes we also test it according to customer's request.

 4. Instructions for application

1) Excessive grinding may destroy the encapsulated cover.

2) .Content of alkali metals in glaze should be low, otherwise the stability of zirconium silicate  will be affected.

3) Avoid adding Zno to the glaze, otherwise it may cause pin hole.

4) Avoid adding Barium to the glaze, otherwise it may affect the colorization.

 5. Customer Feedback

1Color differrence: For every batch of product delivered, we keep the pre-shipment sample for two years, and we keep ample stock to make sure that the customer get consistence in color.

2Black dots: black dots phenomenon, i.e. the brownish-black spots appeared on the surface of ceramic wares calcined with medium and high temperatures, is a weakness in the application of inclusion stains. Experiments have proven that this phenomenon is related to the ceramic body, frits as well as the pigments used. This problem can be solved by “Compensative encapsulation” and adjustment of frits.

3Treatment of glazed surface: problems such as pin holes, glaze flowing, bubbles, chill etc, can be solved by adjusting glaze formula or firing temperature.

4Particle Size & impurity:Particle size becomes more and more important with the application of inclusion stains in screen printing. Some customers require that the particle size to be above 250 mesh, but currently our specification is 250 mesh. The problem can be solved by adding extra screening equipment and keeping more strict control of production process.

 

FAQ - Export Information

General

CHINA SUNWING TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY CO., LTD (described as the Seller), enters into contracts of sale only upon the basis that the conditions set out below govern the contract. No variation to these Conditions shall be binding unless agreed in writing between the authorized representatives of the Buyer and the Seller.

1.Orders,Quotations:

Where a prospective Buyer submits an order to the Seller, the issue to that party of the Seller's acknowledgment of order form shall constitute the terms of an offer upon the basis of which the Seller is willing to contract, and the terms subject to which any such an order was submitted, shall be of no effect. Acceptance of goods delivered pursuant to such an acknowledgment of order shall constitute a contract incorporating only the terms set out in this document.

 2.Prices:

Prices are based on the Seller's costs and expenses and shall be those ruling at the date of invoice. The Seller reserves the right between the date of acceptance of order and the date of invoice to increase prices to cover increases in the Seller's costs and expenses incurred in performing the contract and to invoice at the price prevailing at the date of invoice.

 3.Delivery:

1)All delivery dates are approximate but the Seller will make every effort to meet the delivery date indicated and in the event of delayed delivery, the Seller shall not be liable for loss or damage of whatever nature arising therefrom .

 2) Property in the goods will pass from the Seller to the Buyer when the Seller delivers the goods to the Buyer or to a carrier or other bailee or custodian for the purpose of transmission to the Buyer.

 3) In the event of failure by the Buyer to accept a delivery or delayed delivery, the Seller shall have the right to cancel such delivery and all other outstanding deliveries and to charge the Buyer with any loss of profit suffered and expense incurred.

 4) Each part delivery shall be considered a separate transaction, which will not affect the rights or liabilities of either party under the contract as to the remaining deliveries.

 5) Non-delivery or delayed delivery due to war, civil commotion, strikes, lock-outs, machine breakdown, fire, force majeure or any cause whatever beyond the Seller's control will not involve liability on the part of the Seller, and the Seller shall be entitled at his option either to cancel the order or any part thereof or to an extension of time for time for delivery corresponding to the duration of the event causing the delay.

 4.Quantity variations:

Any deficiency or surplus not exceeding 10 per cent of the quantity of products ordered shall be considered as due execution of the contract and charged pro rata


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